Why Bukit Batok Hillside Park should be spared from housing development

The dense secondary rainforest in Bukit Batok Hillside Park serves as a natural habitat and safe haven for our dwindling numbers of wildlife residents and plants (of which 10 species have been identified in the EIA report to be of conservation concern).

The Housing and Development Board (HDB) has engaged an environmental consultancy firm to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on Bukit Batok Hillside Park in the western region of Singapore.

Aerial view of new BTO flats in Bukit Batok West from Bukit Batok Hillside Park
Ground view of Bukit Batok Hillside Park, which is sandwiched between the new BTO flats in Bukit Batok West and the existing HDB flats in Bukit Gombak.

According to HDB’s website, they “carefully consider the findings from the studies so that (they) can sensitively plan the land use and make adjustments to the Master Plan if needed to mitigate the potential impact, and establish urban design strategies to provide a quality living environment.”
While I commend HDB for initiating the environmental study in their proposal to build more housing units, I have several concerns about the potential impacts of deforestation in Bukit Batok Hillside Park:

  1. Loss of biodiversity and natural heritage
  2. Risk of soil erosion and landslides
  3. Loss of natural cooling effect and increase in urban heat effect
  4. Loss of cultural and historical heritage
  5. Loss of connection to Nature and increase in stress and anxiety associated with urban claustrophobia
  6. Increase in dengue fever cases due to conditions favouring increased reproduction of disease-carrying mosquitoes
1) Loss of our biodiversity and natural heritage in the western region of Singapore


Oriental Whip Snake in Bukit Batok Hillside Park, which is endemic in Southeast Asia

During a short hike in and around the forest of Bukit Batok Hillside Park on 5 July 2020, I spotted several animal species, such as oriental whip snake, greater racket-tailed drongo, white-crested laughing thrushes, black-naped orioles, yellow-vented bulbuls, and insect species such as dragonflies and butterflies.

These are merely a fraction of the 81 fauna species recorded in the EIA (and there may be more species that have yet to be discovered during the 9-day wildlife survey). The presence of predators such as snakes suggests a fairly complex food web in this fragile secondary forest ecosystem, which is still recovering from past human disturbance.


Bukit Batok Hillside Park faces the disappearing Tengah forest opposite Bukit Batok Road.

Since Tengah forest nearby is currently being cleared to make way for new homes, most of the wildlife there will have nowhere else to escape to, since it is bounded by expressways in the north and west, and by roads along Choa Chu Kang housing estate in the east and along Bukit Batok and Bukit Gombak housing estates in the south.

Some birds may be able to fly across Bukit Batok Road from the disappearing Tengah forest to take refuge in Bukit Batok Hillside Park. However, if the forest in Bukit Batok Hillside Park were to be destroyed too, then there would be a huge loss of the existing biodiversity in this region. This is because Bukit Batok Hillside Park serves as the last remaining node of connectivity between Tengah forest and the forested areas in Bukit Batok town park (Little Guilin), Bukit Batok nature park and Bukit Timah nature reserve.


With Tengah Forest looking set to disappear in about 10-20 years’ time due to housing development, Bukit Batok Hillside Park is the last remaining refuge for the wildlife in this region. (Source: Google Maps)

Although the upcoming Tengah town is designed to have “forest corridors“, they will be closely intersected by roads, pavements and cycling tracks. These do not allow the animal residents to move freely, unlike in a real forest setting such as in Bukit Batok Hillside Park, where they can go about their daily lives – eating, mating, reproducing, sleeping, etc – undisturbed by human presence.


Bukit Batok Road and the new BTO flat construction site pose a challenge for the native ground-moving animals, such as the critically endangered Sunda pangolins, to cross safely from the diminishing Tengah forest to Bukit Batok Hillside Park.

Like Dr Ho Hua Chew, vice-president of Nature Society (Singapore), said, “some species of birds, such as parakeets, eagles and others that can fly longer distances, will be able to use the fragmented patches of forests as stepping stones from the Tengah forest to Bukit Batok Nature Park or the nature reserve and vice versa”. On the other hand, he is also concerned that “wiping out the vegetation (in the Bukit Batok area) further disrupts the route that wildlife can use to move from forest to forest”.

2) Steep slopes prone to soil erosion and landslides in Bukit Batok

The steep slopes of Bukit Batok Hillside Park are prone to soil erosion and landslides, especially if the protective tree cover is removed.
Fragile topsoil exposed in a gully in the forest of Bukit Batok Hillside Park

Bukit Batok is blessed with several small forested hills and ridges, which thankfully have helped the town retain its overall green appearance for the most part, compared to most other towns in Singapore. Thanks to their steep slopes, some of these forested hills, such as Bukit Batok neighborhood park along Bukit Batok Street 21 and the hills surrounding Bukit Batok MRT station, have escaped urban development so far.

Hence, I find it inconceivable that Bukit Batok Hillside Park is being considered for housing development, since the steep slopes, especially those adjacent to Bukit Batok West Avenue 2, are prone to soil erosion and landslides if the vegetation cover is removed. The seasonal monsoon rains and late afternoon thunderstorms, which are common in Singapore, add to the risk of natural hazards such as landslides. It is also dangerous and expensive to construct buildings on steep slopes, hence Bukit Batok Hillside Park is not ideal for housing development.

3) Loss of natural cooling effect of forest and increased urban heat effect in the western region of Singapore


The tropical rainforests in the western region of Singapore help to lower the temperatures in towns such as Bukit Batok, whereas the highly built-up areas in the central and eastern regions of Singapore, such as Toa Payoh, experience significantly higher temperatures. (Source: weather.gov.sg)

According to HDB’s website, “greenery is present in every HDB estate. It helps to reduce temperatures and mitigate heat while improving air quality and biodiversity, besides being pleasing and attractive.”

I agree with that. I would like to add that sizeable forested areas, such as Bukit Batok Hillside Park, help to reduce temperatures in housing estates much more effectively than roadside trees and fragments of ornamental vegetation in town parks in highly built-up areas, such as Toa Payoh.

For example, when I was staying in Toa Payoh in central Singapore, where I grew up in from 1973 to 2014, I could feel the warm humid air on most nights. This is because Toa Payoh is located in a highly built-up environment with fragmented vegetation and lack of a dense forest. After moving to Bukit Batok in the western region of Singapore in 2014, I could feel the difference in temperatures, as the air is cooler on most nights. This is because of the presence of dense forests in and around Bukit Batok.

In fact, the above map shows that on average, the night-time temperature in Bukit Batok is about 1.5 degrees Celsius cooler than that in Toa Payoh. Now that Tengah forest is disappearing and becoming more and more fragmented due to deforestation for housing development, it is likely that the surface temperatures around the neighbourhood of Bukit Batok will rise gradually.


A loss of the dense forest in Bukit Batok Hillside Park will lead to a loss of natural cooling effect and a rise in urban heat effect in the neighbourhoods of Bukit Batok West and Bukit Gombak.

If the forest in Bukit Batok Hillside Park is removed too, then the temperature in the neighbourhood will rise further due to the loss of cooling effect of the dense tree growth. With an increase in urban heat effect, there will likely be an increase in electricity consumption, due to higher usage of air conditioning in homes, especially on warm, stuffy nights. The increased heat will be exacerbated by the ongoing global warming climate, which will inevitably result in more physical discomfort and stress for the residents in the coming years.

In addition, the quality of air is likely to deteriorate if Bukit Batok Hillside Park is sacrificed for housing development, due to increased motor traffic around the vicinity and less natural vegetation to filter air impurities or toxic chemicals and reduce air pollution.

4) Loss of cultural and historical heritage in Bukit Batok


An abandoned well in Bukit Batok Hillside Park, which has historical and cultural significance


Relics of a former settlement and plantation, such as ceramic ware, in Bukit Batok Hillside Park have historical and cultural values.

As Singapore becomes more and more modernised, our younger generations face the danger of losing touch with our history, cultures and traditions. According to the EIA report, Bukit Batok Hillside Park comprises a former rubber plantation, with natural freshwater streams, which are rarely seen in Singapore today.

Hence, not only is the forested area worthy to be conserved for natural heritage, it is also worthy to be preserved for having historical and cultural significance. For example, the abandoned well and other relics in Bukit Batok Hillside Park can serve as useful tools for educating the public about Singapore’s history in an authentic setting (like how the abandoned kampong houses in the former Hainan Village are now preserved for public education in Thomson Nature Park).

5) Loss of connection with Nature and increased stress and anxiety associated with urban claustrophobia felt by people


The intriguing remains of a rocky trail in Bukit Batok Hillside Park are worth preserving, not only for their aesthetic value, but also for enabling visitors to explore and experience the forest as part of nature therapy.

An article by NParks noted that forest therapy helped people to relax, destress and often, enabled them to feel happier and more positive.

“A mental and emotional boost, you may say. And scientific research backs this up.”

– “Urban Forest Therapy in Singapore” by NParks

Moreover, a scientific study “reported that individuals’ positive moods increased significantly inside a forest than outside it or at its periphery, whereas their negative moods increased outside the forest.”

Hence, if the forest in Bukit Batok Hillside Park is destroyed for housing development, it will increase the likelihood of the residents losing connection with Nature, which in turn can be detrimental to their physical, mental and emotional health and well-being in the long run.

6) Deforestation can lead to an increase in dengue fever cases

Dengue cluster map

In July 2020, the dengue clusters are mainly concentrated in highly built-up areas in central and east Singapore, where people live around fragmented vegetation spots in deforested areas. (Source: NEA)

The above map shows that dengue fever cases are fewer in the western region of Singapore, including Bukit Batok, where there are dense forested areas nearby, such as Bukit Batok Hillside Park, Bukit Batok nature park and Bukit Timah nature reserve, which are relatively undisturbed by humans.

Notably, an academic research paper reported in 2016 that “a growing body of scientific evidence shows that the felling of tropical forests creates optimal conditions for the spread of mosquito-borne scourges, including malaria and dengue.”

Similarly, a Straits Times article reported in 2019 that the ecological history of deforestation in the Philippines – followed by urbanisation, the further degradation of our forests and climate change – continues to explain the tenacity of dengue in the country.

Hence, it is imperative that the authorities take drastic steps to stop or minimise deforestation as much as possible, in order to curb the current dengue outbreak in Singapore, which has become the worst outbreak in recent history.

My Proposed Alternatives
In view of my concerns described above, may I propose the following alternatives?
First, we can consider reinstating Bukit Batok Hillside Park as an enhanced nature park with educational trails and conservation zones.
Second, we can choose to focus on recycling or redeveloping brownfield sites (such as old or disused developed areas) instead of clearing greenfield sites (such as Bukit Batok Hillside Park) for future housing development, as also suggested by HDB CEO Dr Cheong Koon Hean in her IPS-Nathan lecture in 2018.

“Similar to many mature cities, as we become built up over time we will be left with more brownfield rather than greenfield sites. This requires us to shift progressively into an ‘urban redevelopment/regeneration’ mode.

For an island city-state limited by our territorial waters, available land for new development will come mainly from ‘recycling’ existing land and properties.”

– Dr Cheong Koon Hean, HDB CEO (IPS-Nathan lecture, 2018)

Last but not least, we should definitely review our national development master plan, since The Straits Times reported on 3 July 2020 that “recent trends ensure that Singapore’s population will be significantly below 6.9 million in 2030″. Surely we don’t really need to keep destroying our few remaining valuable forests for housing development, given that our population is not expected to increase as quickly as we had once thought?


In summary, by sparing Bukit Batok Hillside Park (and other greenfield sites) from deforestation for housing development and by choosing to develop brownfield sites instead, we can achieve the following benefits:

The residents of the new and existing flats in Bukit Batok West and Bukit Gombak will appreciate having Bukit Batok Hillside Park for recreation and outdoor education on nature conservation.
“We recommend the conservation of these secondary regrowth forest patches as they are, as refuges for nationally threatened native species, which make up about 20% of the species we recorded in each forest patch (namely, Bukit Batok Hillside Park, Bukit Batok Town Park, Bukit Batok Nature Park and Bukit Batok East Forest).”
(Source: The Vascular Plant Flora in Bukit Batok, Singapore by National University of Singapore, 2013)

Our fragile nature reserves in Singapore

Last Sunday, I took a plunge into the last remaining primary rainforest in Singapore, which I haven’t visited for some time.
I decided to hike along South View trail, as I didn’t recall having taken it before and I wanted to be far away from the crowd who took the main path to the summit.
I was rewarded with a view of the surrounding area at a lookout point at South View hut.
Though the view is mostly covered by the foliage, it is at least better than the view from the summit, which is almost completely covered by trees (not that it’s a bad thing, as the trees are important too).
As I sat at the South View hut, I read the NParks signboard that says we are guests in this place, and it is our responsibility to conserve our fragile nature reserves both for ourselves and future generations.
The words are so true, and yet so ironic… because the transport authorities are considering to build an underground MRT train tunnel underneath the Central nature reserve near the reservoirs.
No words can adequately describe the sense of tranquility and ancient heritage of Bukit Timah nature reserve, which must have retained its original form for millions of years (possibly surviving cycles of sea level rises in between ice ages due to its elevation).
It is the last stronghold for the native green spaces that are relatively untouched by humans in Singapore.
Its fragile existence is made all the more pronounced by the fact that one forest after another has fallen prey to development over the years, including Bidadari forest, Lentor-Tagore forest and Tengah forest.
Even the forest around Poyan area in western Singapore is being cleared for development (as reported by avid Nature explorer M Saniroz AR) – this is being carried out quietly while the mainstream media distracts us with news of all kinds.
All this talk about climate change mitigation measures might sound impressive, but …
As long as deforestation continues in our midst, and our wildlife residents continue to experience genocide and displacement, the words ultimately sound hollow, for we are failing in our responsibility to conserve Nature as a nation.

A case for conservation of Tengah forest in Singapore

Why we need the forest 🌳🌳🌳🌳

A couple of days ago, I took time off after my morning shift for hiking.

It is part of my voluntary project for nature conservation and environmental awareness.

The photos and videos of the hike serve to preserve the memory of Tengah forest for posterity.

I am also inspired to make a special video that combines video clips from my previous hike to make a case for conservation.


Because climate change affects all of us, including plants, animals and humans.

According to an article:

“New research has found strong evidence that climate change is spurring conflict, which is driving people to abandon their homelands and seek safety elsewhere.”

In Singapore, it is already happening in some ways.

Birds and animals have been displaced from their homes ever since urban development started some 200 years ago.

With the ongoing clearance of Tengah forest, the baya weavers, otters and other animals are in danger of losing their homes.

It probably wouldn’t be long before more and more of us humans will also become environmental refugees due to climate change affecting the liveability of our environment.

To where will we seek asylum?

To where can we really migrate since the effects of climate change are ubiquitous?

What happens in one country will affect other countries, as seen in the case of the Sumatran haze and many other examples.

The future is in our hands.

Nature is free and abundant

(Picture sources: Google)

Nature is free and abundant.

When it rains, Nature provides an umbrella in the form of a banana leaf free of charge.

All of us have equal access to the benefits of Nature.

Nature does not discriminate anyone.

You don’t need to pay anything.

You only need to take care of the environment, and Nature will take care of you.

Conserve the forest, and the forest will preserve you and your posterity.

We and Nature are one and interconnected.

Circuses and our evolving consciousness

National Geographic has published an online photo gallery of the Ringling Bros Circus. I don’t remember following Ringling Bros Circus but I vaguely recalled having watched some circus shows on TV when I was younger. In today’s rising consciousness about animal welfare, changing lifestyles and perceptions and so on, it is perhaps understandable that circuses aren’t generally as popular as they were during their heyday.
One vivid memory I had about circuses though is the book I read when I was in primary school called “Mr Galliano’s Circus” written by Enid Blyton. I remember I was struggling with learning English in Primary 1 or 2, and did not score well in English tests or exams, partly because I wasn’t well read at a young age. When I stumbled upon “Mr Galliano’s Circus” in the school library, I was pleasantly surprised to find that the language level was just right for me at that point in time, and I believe it marked a turning point for me to develop a love for reading story books, thanks to the intriguing premise of the story about a boy called Jimmy (the name sounds familiar) who embarked on an adventure when he got to travel with the circus with his parents.
I googled about the book and found it interesting that a reviewer wrote the following

“But Mr Galliano’s Circus is also quite subversive. An ordinary family gives up their comfortable suburban life and joins the circus. Ultimately this is a book about freedom and escaping the rat race.”

For all the controversies surrounding circuses, I have to admit that circuses at that point in history probably would have developed from a different set of cultures, values and circumstances than that in the kind of modern societies in which I live. Back in those days, animals from the wild were seen as mysterious and taming wild animals was a wonder for people who grew up all their lives in urban concrete jungles to watch, and the circus life was seen as a source of entertainment and an escapade from the mainstream societal system that didn’t have iPads, YouTube and MTVs for instant entertainment.
As much as I empathised with the wild animals such as lions and elephants that had to bear the ignominy and inconveniences of being confined in unnatural cages and subjugated to perform circus tricks, I have to understand that the people who grew up being involved in circus life didn’t know much better at that time, and through a rising consciousness about how we are all interconnected, we begin to understand a bit better about ourselves and others, and we begin to make positive changes and learn to make adjustments to create a better, more humane and equitable world…

My feedback on the concept master plan to develop the Green Corridor in Singapore

A news article that was published yesterday features proposals for the Green Corridor (aka Rail Corridor) in Singapore.
In the same vein, the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) website that is dedicated to the Rail Corridor says:
“The Rail Corridor is a very unique public space differentiated from other community spaces in Singapore. The Rail Corridor connects homes, work places and schools. It encourages a spirit of discovery and exploration, and provides a common space for shared experiences across a diverse segment of our population. There is great potential in fostering social-bonding and community-building activities along the Corridor.”

The above news article also says:

“The public is invited to give feedback at the exhibition and online at http://ura.sg/railrfp from now until the end of next March.”

So, I decided to submit my feedback to URA via their website with regard to the concept master plan to develop the Green Corridor, as follows:

It seems the plan is only to commercialise Tanjong Pagar railway station, so hopefully the rest of the green corridor will be spared (and I understand nothing is set in stone as the plan will be fine-tuned based on public feedback). I also don’t wish to see the green corridor becoming another east coast park, but at the rate it is currently being used and will be more frequently used in future, it is inevitable that some degradation of the muddy track will result, such as compaction and erosion of soil. Bukit Timah nature reserve was closed to public for the time being (except on weekends) for renovation for that reason, so if paving is going to be done carefully, such as using gravel (or something equivalent) instead of concrete to emulate the cycling trails in Pulau Ubin, that allows infiltration of rainwater into the porous surface, I would say it will likely serve the dual purpose of protecting the environment and making the trail more user friendly.
Green Corridor, Singapore
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency: Dreamstime.com

The night lighting can be solar powered, and have motion sensors. So, if there is nobody in the area, there isn’t any need for the lights to turn on. This will help conserve energy. Solar panels can be built throughout the Green Corridor to harness more of the solar energy for nearby buildings.

Natural vegetation, as far as possible, should be left as they are – like in the case of Sungei Buloh wetland reserve. It is fine to enhance the zen tranquility of gardens or urban parks, but not the rainforests etc because the latter already have their own natural serenity.

One concern many nature lovers have is that the Green Corridor will lose its quiet ambience and natural feel, especially when it becomes too popular and crowded in future. For example, if the corridor becomes too user-friendly to the extent that it becomes a bicycle expressway, it will somewhat lose its rustic charm. Similarly, if we are going to build plaza spaces, cafes and amphitheatres, it is likely to disturb the quietness of the surroundings, and people will no longer find the Green Corridor attractive as a sanctuary to get away from urban stress and commercialisation.
Mountain Bike Track
© Photographer: Haslinda | Agency: Dreamstime.com

So, maybe one way to prevent the green corridor from being too inviting for bicycles and becoming overcrowded is to have a holistic development of cycling infrastructure in Singapore, such as by developing the green corridor in tandem with the cycling infrastructure elsewhere. For example, if dedicated bike lanes are made available along the roads nearby, then cyclists can choose to take these alternative routes to their destinations instead of solely depending on the green corridor to use as a bicycle “expressway”.

Similarly, let’s seek to find a balance by not over-developing the Green Corridor in order to minimise noise level and any form of commercialisation and artificiality, in order to retain the original spirit of rustic charm and healing balm of Nature.

Green Corridor, Singapore
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency: Dreamstime.com

Education on Nature conservation is always good because no amount of penalty and fines are going to stop people from littering or destroying the environment or poaching the wildlife unless people are armed with the understanding on the importance of their interrelationships with Nature, and how any harm done to the environment will ultimately affect themselves. People need to be guided from within instead of having to be controlled by laws and regulations from outside authorities. We as a human species have never lost our inner wisdom and affiliation to Nature – we simply have forgotten who we really are in the quest for development, and we only need to reconnect ourselves with Nature and remember our true identity, and then we will be able to act responsibly based on that revelation.

12183710_1180267532013734_5299996258619595602_o ram dass

Plant propagation at Plant Resource Centre, Botanic Gardens, Singapore

Filling a small container bag with soil


Newly planted seedlings or stem cuttings in container bags



Seedlings or stem cuttings waiting to be planted


I saw onion shoots growing in some pots.


Preparing to plant the seedlings or stem cuttings into a small bag of soil


Newly planted seedlings or stem cuttings transported to a nursery nearby


The plants are watered with a water hose.