Concerns over potential risks of underground construction impacts on wildlife in central nature reserve

The following is my unpublished letter sent to Straits Times Forum.

Dear ST Forum,

I read with concern about the potential risks of underground MRT tunnel construction impacts on wildlife in the central nature reserve, as reported in the Straits Times on 9 September 2019.

Despite the fact that EIA was carried out and mitigation measures were planned to reduce the construction impacts, we cannot fully ascertain the full extent of the impacts on the wellbeing of our vulnerable native wildlife species, such as pangolin, mousedeer, civet cat and so on.

It is a fact that animals in the wild are far more sensitive than humans to subtle environmental

changes and habitat disturbances.

For example, it is reported in Channel News Asia on 2 October 2019 that “Thailand was hit by drought this year and the elephants may have been looking for new sources of drinking water, but it is also possible they were trying to avoid contact with humans.”

As a result of disturbances around Khao Yao national park, the elephants had strayed near the dangerous waterfall and ended up falling over the cliff, and 11 of them died.

According to an article, studies have conclusively shown that noise and vibration can adversely affect breeding in laboratory mice. Continuous exposure to vibrations can impose fatigue and sleep deficiencies. Random vibrations occurrences have been known to invoke panic in mice whereby they cannibalize their pups when low frequency vibrations are suddenly perceived coming from under their bedding possibly sensing an intruder is approaching.

Another article noted that “In February 1975 hibernating snakes abandoned their hideouts in the north-eastern city of Haicheng. The city was evacuated and February 4, the region was hit by a 7.3 magnitude earthquake.”

Therefore, I urge the authorities to reconsider the construction of the direct MRT line underneath the central nature reserve. We cannot risk harming the wellbeing of our wildlife residents. The construction works would invariably cause habitat disturbances, and the vibrations caused by the construction deep underground can resemble seismic activity, which can profound impact their lives in ways beyond our understanding. Not only their breeding and other survival behaviours may be adversely affected, but also they may be compelled to flee from the forests and become displaced, homeless or even end up as roadkill.

Finally, NParks signboard explicitly states that we are only guests in our vulnerable nature reserve, which should be left undisturbed, so that we and our future generations can continue to enjoy them. Surely it would be a moral and criminal offence for us to do any kind of major construction works in the nature reserve itself, whether in the air above, on land or below the land.

My concerns about the plans to build a direct underground MRT tunnel underneath MacRitchie rainforest in Singapore

Several days ago, I emailed Land Transport Authority (LTA) of Singapore to voice my concerns about the plans to build a direct underground MRT tunnel underneath MacRitchie rainforest in Singapore, as follows.

Dear sir/madam,
I am writing to provide my feedback on the cross island line construction.
I am concerned about the environmental impact on the central nature reserve that may be caused directly or indirectly by the direct alignment option.

Such impact can be detrimental to both wildlife and natural vegetation in profound ways that we may yet fully understand.
Below are my specific concerns:
1. NParks signboards state that we are only guests in the fragile nature reserves, and we should preserve it for ourselves and future generations. Therefore, no construction works should be carried out within the central nature reserve, even if they are deep underground or along the periphery of the rainforest.
2. NParks also states that any noise within the zone will affect sensitive wildlife in the central reserve. Please see attached screenshot. We cannot guarantee that the construction works won’t generate noise or vibrations, whether they are carried out along the forest fringes or underneath the forest floor, even if it mainly comprises hard rocks underground.
3. We cannot totally rule out the possibility of any tunnel accident or collapse, whether during or after construction. The Nicoll highway MRT tunnel construction accident is a cautionary tale for us. In the event of an accident or incident in an underground tunnel below the nature reserve, any rescue work will likely affect the nature reserve, especially if a shaft needs to be bored deep into the earth, like in the case of the dramatic rescue of the Chilean miners some years ago.
4. Last but not least, we cannot fully ascertain the vastness of the underground hot spring around Sembawang. I believe there is a reason why the existing MRT tracks are built above the ground along the North-South line between Kranji and Bishan MRT stations. It is possible that the northern and north-central parts of Singapore may have hot underground reservoirs, which may extend to the area between Lower Peirce reservoir and MacRitchie reservoir. If so, it would be dangerous for any kind of deep underground construction works to be carried out in this region. Please see attached diagram for reference.
The nature reserves are the only remaining primary rainforest and wildlife habitat we have left in Singapore. With the ongoing development works that have been destroying other green spaces including Bidadari, Lentor and Tengah forest, we cannot afford to risk losing or affecting the last vestiges of our original forests. They are our most important natural heritage, and they serve as our green lungs, refuge for our wildlife residents and sanctuary for our soul.
Thank you for your kind attention and I look forward to your positive response.

I then followed up with a second email to LTA.

Dear Sir/Madam,

In addition to my first email, I would like to add the following point.
While LTA may be concerned about time and cost factors, as stated in the EIA report, my stance is that no amount of time and money can recover or compensate for the potential loss and/or disturbance of the fragile biodiversity.
A case in point:
Years ago, Singapore built Bukit Timah expressway that divides between Bukit Timah nature reserve and Central nature reserve, which invariably affects the migratory routes and long-term survival of our native wildlife species.
As a result, we recently have had to spend enormous amounts of money and resources to build an Eco-link to hopefully restore some amount of ecological balance in the nature reserves.
Isn’t it better to leave the natural ecosystem untouched in the first place instead of creating disturbance and then spending even more time and money to rectify the situation?
Finally, there is no doubt that LTA wants to enhance the mobility and convenience for people in Singapore even further by building the cross island line.
But we have to bear in mind that many, if not all, of our native wildlife species, which we share our home with, are not as resilient or adaptable as us human beings in the face of rapid urbanisation, as shown in the innumerable cases of wildlife species being driven to extinction around the world by unsustainable development and environmental degradation over the years.
The following is the reply I received from LTA.

Dear Jimmy,

Thank you for your interest and feedback on the Phase 2 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the Cross Island Line (CRL).

During the EIA study process, measures to avoid or reduce impacts associated with the proposed alignment options were prioritized. This has led to the placement of worksites as far from the primary forest patches within the CCNR as possible. For both direct and skirting alignment, there will not be any surface construction works or above ground structures within the CCNR. Railway construction and operations, including and not limited to emergency procedures and escape provisions, will conform with current codes of practices and operational requirements in the existing MRT lines.

Measurements were undertaken to establish the vibration baseline levels within the CCNR, and vibration generated from tunneling activities were assessed to be below the baseline vibration levels that are currently experienced by wildlife. As a precautionary measure, LTA will carry out vibration monitoring during the tunnelling works to ensure the levels are kept below the baseline levels. The vibration levels generated during railway operation were assessed to be even lower than those generated during construction, it is therefore not expected to give rise to impacts to wildlife within the CCNR.

In view of the value and sensitivity of the forest habitat, LTA will be exploring further means to optimize the worksite footprint at the Advanced Engineering Study stage of the Project, so that site clearance can be minimized. In addition, LTA will be collaborating with NParks on reforestation plans to restore connectivity between forest fragments around the Project area. A comprehensive Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP) to mitigate the impact has also been developed in consultation with various stakeholders. The EMMP will be a framework for monitoring and checking of mitigation measures, so that changes can be made to ensure these measures continue to remain effective throughout the Project construction.

Based on the EIA, both underground alignments for the CRL are feasible and the residual impacts are largely moderate or below. These impacts can be managed with mitigation measures. Thus far, the Government has not made a decision yet on the alignment option. In deciding on which alignment to adopt, the Government will have to consider the full range of factors such as travel time, commuter benefits, impacts on home owners and environment.

Once again, we thank you for sharing your views with us. Views and suggestions of different stakeholders will be taken into considerations for Government to make decision on the final alignment of the CRL.

There is no mention of my concern about the underground hot springs in their reply. I suppose they probably need to look into this matter first.

Our fragile nature reserves in Singapore

Last Sunday, I took a plunge into the last remaining primary rainforest in Singapore, which I haven’t visited for some time.
I decided to hike along South View trail, as I didn’t recall having taken it before and I wanted to be far away from the crowd who took the main path to the summit.
I was rewarded with a view of the surrounding area at a lookout point at South View hut.
Though the view is mostly covered by the foliage, it is at least better than the view from the summit, which is almost completely covered by trees (not that it’s a bad thing, as the trees are important too).
As I sat at the South View hut, I read the NParks signboard that says we are guests in this place, and it is our responsibility to conserve our fragile nature reserves both for ourselves and future generations.
The words are so true, and yet so ironic… because the transport authorities are considering to build an underground MRT train tunnel underneath the Central nature reserve near the reservoirs.
No words can adequately describe the sense of tranquility and ancient heritage of Bukit Timah nature reserve, which must have retained its original form for millions of years (possibly surviving cycles of sea level rises in between ice ages due to its elevation).
It is the last stronghold for the native green spaces that are relatively untouched by humans in Singapore.
Its fragile existence is made all the more pronounced by the fact that one forest after another has fallen prey to development over the years, including Bidadari forest, Lentor-Tagore forest and Tengah forest.
Even the forest around Poyan area in western Singapore is being cleared for development (as reported by avid Nature explorer M Saniroz AR) – this is being carried out quietly while the mainstream media distracts us with news of all kinds.
All this talk about climate change mitigation measures might sound impressive, but …
As long as deforestation continues in our midst, and our wildlife residents continue to experience genocide and displacement, the words ultimately sound hollow, for we are failing in our responsibility to conserve Nature as a nation.

Climate change: Time is of essence

It was a hot and stuffy night.

I woke up this morning at around 5 am, and cast a bleary eye on the phone to check the weather forecast.

It showed “28 degrees Celsius”.

“Ok, it is a bit higher than usual, but it seems to feel warmer than that,” I thought to myself.

I scrolled down the screen to check the humidity.

It showed “88 percent (feels like 33 degrees Celsius)”.

That explained why it felt like being under the hot afternoon sun, even though it was barely pre-dawn at this time.

Meanwhile, the table fan continued to whirl, doing little to cool the air around me.

I don’t recall Singapore getting this hot and stuffy, even at this time of the year.

I think that climate change is affecting us all at a faster rate than we might have expected.


Time is of essence.

A verse came to my mind later today.

“Teach us to number our days, that we may gain a heart of wisdom.”

The psalmist who wrote that verse had prayed for a heart of wisdom by being taught to number our days.

I realised that once we learn to count our days, knowing that we have a limited time on earth regardless of our attempts to increase our longevity, we will learn to make each day count.

For many (if not all) of us, we would learn of the passing of a loved one or someone we looked up to, every so often.

I am also coming to realise that it is not only individual lives that are temporal, but also humanity as a collective.

(After all, from the perspective of the geological time frame, humans have only existed for a fraction of the entire history of the earth.)

In other words, it is a matter of time that human extinction becomes a reality.


Is this another bogus “end of the world prophecy” that we are too used to seeing in the media?

No, I am not referring to any religious belief or superstition that uses fear mongering to control people.

Nor am I referring to some political agenda for depopulating the earth (though there are indications that can serve as evidence of it being carried out in some places).

Rather, there is scientific reason to raise this concern (which isn’t new by any means).

The signs are everywhere, both close to home and abroad.

Some signs are gradual, such as rising sea levels and temperatures, which are slowly killing coral reefs and flooding low-lying coastal settlements; they are so imperceptible that many of us miss them as we go about our hustle and bustle of life.

Other signs occur suddenly in a big way, whether in terms of extreme storms or heat waves or some other natural disasters, which can result in casualties.

As another writer has observed in her blog:

“What can we reasonably expect to see every year for the next ten years?

More heatwaves like in Japan. More wildfires like in Greece and California.

More crop failures like in the UK and Australia. The big dry will continue.

The flooding will continue.

Food and water will continue to be just out of the reach of those who need it most.

Millions of people will be displaced by sea level rise or some other climate related catastrophe.

If the best indicator of future behavior is past behavior, the next ten years do not look promising.”

Some people may continue to ignore these signs.

Some people may dismiss efforts by individuals and companies in recycling, reusing or reducing waste.

(After all, it has been said that privilege is when you think something is not a problem because you aren’t affected personally.)

But I find it rather ironic that many people would choose to observe the signs of the stock market et al than pay attention to the signs of the environmental crises.

No doubt, following the stock market accurately may bring them and their families material wealth through investment.

But the environmental crises affect us all – humans, animals, plants, the entire planet.

Also, some people are willing to pay thousands of dollars to learn all kinds of persuasion skills to sell products and services and make more money.

(I suppose there is a place for that, so long as we are in this unsustainable capitalistic economic system, and it depends on how we utilise that, if we choose to do so.)

But I think that the environmental issues require no persuasion skills.

I have nothing to sell by highlighting environmental crises, and I have no persuasion methods to employ, except to present these evidences as they are.

I also have nothing to gain, except perhaps the pleasure and satisfaction of seeing Nature preserved and conserved just a little bit more, a little bit longer.

A case for conservation of Tengah forest in Singapore

Why we need the forest 🌳🌳🌳🌳

A couple of days ago, I took time off after my morning shift for hiking.

It is part of my voluntary project for nature conservation and environmental awareness.

The photos and videos of the hike serve to preserve the memory of Tengah forest for posterity.

I am also inspired to make a special video that combines video clips from my previous hike to make a case for conservation.


Because climate change affects all of us, including plants, animals and humans.

According to an article:

“New research has found strong evidence that climate change is spurring conflict, which is driving people to abandon their homelands and seek safety elsewhere.”

In Singapore, it is already happening in some ways.

Birds and animals have been displaced from their homes ever since urban development started some 200 years ago.

With the ongoing clearance of Tengah forest, the baya weavers, otters and other animals are in danger of losing their homes.

It probably wouldn’t be long before more and more of us humans will also become environmental refugees due to climate change affecting the liveability of our environment.

To where will we seek asylum?

To where can we really migrate since the effects of climate change are ubiquitous?

What happens in one country will affect other countries, as seen in the case of the Sumatran haze and many other examples.

The future is in our hands.

Questioning the western colonial perspective in Geography education

Do you know that we study Geography mainly through a Western colonial lens?

Despite many years of Geography education in schools, we are still tackling recurring social and environmental issues around the world.

Poverty, inequality, environmental degradation, climate change – to name a few.

Something must be amiss in the way we approach our understanding of Geography.

How can we address the shortcomings or limitations of our Geography education system and mindset?

Will Kallang River Make It?

kallang river polluted
Kallang River in Potong Pasir. Some flotsam and debris are seen floating on the water on 13 September 2016.

According to an article dated 29 March 2017, Singapore’s Urban Redevelopment Authority’s (URA) has an ambitious plan to turn the areas along Kallang River into a lifestyle hub. The agency is calling on the public to share their feedback on ideas to revitalise the river. Here is a gist of my ideas and aspirations for Kallang River:

First and foremost, the river itself must be clean and conducive to thriving aquatic life, or else no amount of cosmetic changes to the surrounding landscape will do justice to the river.

We cannot solely depend on dredging works in Kallang River that are carried out downstream near Kallang Basin.

Rubbish still occasionally flows into the river from drains in the suburbs such as Toa Payoh and Bishan in the upstream area.

As recent as August 2016, a plethora of unsightly rubbish was seen in Kallang River behind Braddell Road bus depot after a storm, as shown in this website .

Until every effort is made to curb pollution, littering and inconsiderate disposal of waste – whether in the river premises or in the surrounding suburbs – the vision of a vibrant and living Kallang River will remain an elusive dream.

Can we truly see a transformation from “A stagnant, ugly, dirty canal runs through it” to “An active, beautiful, clean river runs through it”?

Time will tell.

Water pollution issue in Singapore

This is the original, unedited letter I emailed to Straits Time forum. It was published online on 8 September 2016, entitled “Don’t overlook rubbish in less-frequented areas“.

It has been said that Singapore is not so much a “clean” city as it is a “cleaned” city. I agree. On 23 August 2016, I saw lots of rubbish floating in the river next to Braddell bus depot. It must have been washed into the river from drains flowing through Bishan and Toa Payoh after a storm.
Polluted river canal
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency:

I highlighted the water pollution issue to PUB via OneService app, and three days later, I saw some workers cleaning up the river at Potong Pasir from the rubbish that we, as a society, have been littering or disposing of.

River cleaning
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency:

On 7 September, I revisited the river at Potong Pasir and noticed that the rubbish has reappeared after a pre-dawn downpour.

Polluted river
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency:

I think we tend to focus on having clean-looking waters in the more frequented areas such as Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park and Kallang Basin where residents and visitors hang out, but the less frequented areas are often neglected. Also, I doubt that the otters living in Kallang Basin would want to swim upstream back to Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park when there is rubbish floating in Kallang River that flows through the high-density populated areas.

We must realise that everything that we throw indiscriminately in the drains will end up in the rivers that flow towards the sea. But we are so preoccupied with our own lives that we fail to see the impacts of our inconsiderate actions. It is usually when a storm occurs that all these accumulated rubbish in the drains are washed into the rivers that we notice the full impact of our actions – unsightly flotsam, stinking water and eutrophication caused by algal bloom, all of which affect aquatic life negatively.

Are we going to continue to ignore the root of the pollution problem in our country and shirk our responsibility in keeping the environment clean by distracting ourselves through our consumeristic lifestyles and not caring about how we dispose of rubbish in public places? Are we only concerned with keeping up an image of living in a supposedly “green and clean city” by focusing only on the appearance of the more frequented areas and neglecting the less frequented areas? When we do not think about how our actions affect the animals, plants and the environment, our actions will ultimately affect ourselves adversely because we are all interconnected in the ecosystem.

Two days after my letter was published in ST Forum Online, I noticed the river at Potong Pasir appeared to have been cleaned up by the national water agency PUB (Public Utilities Board) as it looked cleaner, but this morning (13 September), I noticed the water pollution has recurred, as the river had floating rubbish and debris, presumably washed into the river from nearby drains after a storm had occurred the day before.

“Water in the Kallang River flows into the Marina Reservoir.”

(From PUB says water pollution at Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park “not likely to be kerosene”)

Enough is enough – something has to be done to deal with the persistent water pollution problem at its roots. We are all complicit in this violation against the environment, and ultimately against ourselves.



Cycling is political

Cycling in Bukit Batok nature park
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency:

Cycling is itself political, and it would be futile to separate cycling from politics. The act of cycling itself is a political statement. Whenever we choose to ride a bicycle, we are challenging the status quo of the power structure in the society that favours the rich, powerful and privileged people who predominantly drive cars. We are subverting the classist system that treats cars as status symbols. We are helping to reduce the impacts of environmental degradation caused by pollutive motor vehicles run on fossil fuels. By switching from travelling by motor vehicles to bicycles, we are also easing traffic congestion on the roads. Last but not least, cycling empowers the marginalised and disadvantaged, and restores equality to them.

Then again, I am coming to realise that the moment I become more actively involved in politics, I begin to experience pushback in the form of repression and dissenting voices from some people. For example, last night when I shared a photo of a fellow countryman riding a bicycle in Love Cycling SG Facebook group and commented that he was living by example, the group admin deleted the photo. I decided to post a question in the group to ask the admin why the photo was removed. The admin deleted that post as well without explanation. This gave me the impression that the admin wasn’t interested in dialogues and was unwilling to be held accountable for their actions. I decided to post one final time to call them out for being discriminatory.

I also decided to leave the group with my dignity intact (remembering the importance about being true to myself and not succumb to groupism). I am in the process of working through my thoughts and emotions based on the responses to my post by articulating them in this blog:

If I didn’t challenge the admin like this and let things slide, the discrimination would continue. The fact that photos of ruling party members riding bicycles are allowed but not other party members shows this group is indeed partisan and discriminatory. It smacks of hypocrisy.

This episode underlines a fear-based climate and controlling culture that inhibits free speech and expression of our fundamental human rights. It keeps people repressed, small-minded and immature. I refuse to allow myself to be intimidated or humiliated or talked down at. I am hurt and disgusted by their treatment. I need strong and forceful language to speak my cause. The fact that admin initially refused to respond to my post shows they were not willing to be accountable for their actions. It reminds me of the same way a former prime minister depended on his lawyer to defend him when another politician confronted him directly in the law court.

I chose to leave the group with my dignity intact. If anyone is inspired, it is to encourage them that they too can stand their ground and let their voices be heard for the sake of justice and equality.

So the admin finally replied, saying the photo was linked to SDP Facebook page, and was deemed “political”.

Firstly, why didn’t he clarify earlier? He could have chosen to reply my question in my earlier post instead of removing it without explanation. Why wait until I challenged his action publicly and called out on the apparent discrimination and lack of transparency and accountability?

Secondly, does the link itself denote a infringement of the rules regarding “no political statements”? If so, then I would say it is double standard on the part of the admin because they have allowed photos of politicians from the ruling party to be posted in the past. In any case, the reason the link of SDP Facebook page was shown together with the photo I posted is because the photo doesn’t belong to me, and when I shared it via Facebook, the link was automatically shown. If I were to save the photo in my computer and upload it onto the Facebook group, I would have to acknowledge the source, and SDP Facebook page would still need to be mentioned.

The point I want to make is that the link of SDP Facebook page alone doesn’t necessarily constitute an infringement of the rules, or else the rules would have applied to all other political parties in the past.

In reality, cycling and politics invariably overlap because it is through politics that policies are formed and mindsets are shaped to influence the cycling culture in Singapore, for better or for worse, depending on how we live by example through our cycling activities and conversations, as well as our interactions with pedestrians and motorists.

At this point, I am glad to have removed myself from the group as it might not be worthwhile getting into a debate with them, and this blog can serve as a platform for my voice to be heard. At the very least, I am glad the status quo in that group is being challenged and political awareness about justice and equality is being increased, I believe.


My feedback on the concept master plan to develop the Green Corridor in Singapore

A news article that was published yesterday features proposals for the Green Corridor (aka Rail Corridor) in Singapore.
In the same vein, the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) website that is dedicated to the Rail Corridor says:
“The Rail Corridor is a very unique public space differentiated from other community spaces in Singapore. The Rail Corridor connects homes, work places and schools. It encourages a spirit of discovery and exploration, and provides a common space for shared experiences across a diverse segment of our population. There is great potential in fostering social-bonding and community-building activities along the Corridor.”

The above news article also says:

“The public is invited to give feedback at the exhibition and online at from now until the end of next March.”

So, I decided to submit my feedback to URA via their website with regard to the concept master plan to develop the Green Corridor, as follows:

It seems the plan is only to commercialise Tanjong Pagar railway station, so hopefully the rest of the green corridor will be spared (and I understand nothing is set in stone as the plan will be fine-tuned based on public feedback). I also don’t wish to see the green corridor becoming another east coast park, but at the rate it is currently being used and will be more frequently used in future, it is inevitable that some degradation of the muddy track will result, such as compaction and erosion of soil. Bukit Timah nature reserve was closed to public for the time being (except on weekends) for renovation for that reason, so if paving is going to be done carefully, such as using gravel (or something equivalent) instead of concrete to emulate the cycling trails in Pulau Ubin, that allows infiltration of rainwater into the porous surface, I would say it will likely serve the dual purpose of protecting the environment and making the trail more user friendly.
Green Corridor, Singapore
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency:

The night lighting can be solar powered, and have motion sensors. So, if there is nobody in the area, there isn’t any need for the lights to turn on. This will help conserve energy. Solar panels can be built throughout the Green Corridor to harness more of the solar energy for nearby buildings.

Natural vegetation, as far as possible, should be left as they are – like in the case of Sungei Buloh wetland reserve. It is fine to enhance the zen tranquility of gardens or urban parks, but not the rainforests etc because the latter already have their own natural serenity.

One concern many nature lovers have is that the Green Corridor will lose its quiet ambience and natural feel, especially when it becomes too popular and crowded in future. For example, if the corridor becomes too user-friendly to the extent that it becomes a bicycle expressway, it will somewhat lose its rustic charm. Similarly, if we are going to build plaza spaces, cafes and amphitheatres, it is likely to disturb the quietness of the surroundings, and people will no longer find the Green Corridor attractive as a sanctuary to get away from urban stress and commercialisation.
Mountain Bike Track
© Photographer: Haslinda | Agency:

So, maybe one way to prevent the green corridor from being too inviting for bicycles and becoming overcrowded is to have a holistic development of cycling infrastructure in Singapore, such as by developing the green corridor in tandem with the cycling infrastructure elsewhere. For example, if dedicated bike lanes are made available along the roads nearby, then cyclists can choose to take these alternative routes to their destinations instead of solely depending on the green corridor to use as a bicycle “expressway”.

Similarly, let’s seek to find a balance by not over-developing the Green Corridor in order to minimise noise level and any form of commercialisation and artificiality, in order to retain the original spirit of rustic charm and healing balm of Nature.

Green Corridor, Singapore
© Photographer: Jimmytst | Agency:

Education on Nature conservation is always good because no amount of penalty and fines are going to stop people from littering or destroying the environment or poaching the wildlife unless people are armed with the understanding on the importance of their interrelationships with Nature, and how any harm done to the environment will ultimately affect themselves. People need to be guided from within instead of having to be controlled by laws and regulations from outside authorities. We as a human species have never lost our inner wisdom and affiliation to Nature – we simply have forgotten who we really are in the quest for development, and we only need to reconnect ourselves with Nature and remember our true identity, and then we will be able to act responsibly based on that revelation.

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